Bibliography of Montana Chinese Resources
Following is a listing of primary and secondary historical documents that provide insight into the Chinese Experience specifically in Montana. None of these resources can be found on this page, but hopefully this guide will help future researchers discover additional information about the Chinese in their communities. You can also download a pdf version of this list by clicking HERE. If you have any other resources that you feel should be included please do not hesitate to contact Chris Merritt at email@example.com
Ahmad, Diana L.
2007 The Opium Debate and Chinese Exclusion Laws in the Nineteenth-Century American West. University of Nevada Press, Reno and Las Vegas.
Alt, David and Donald W. Hyndman
1986 Roadside Geology of Montana. Mountain Press Publishing Company: Missoula, MT.
Avon Get Together Club
1977 Our Neighborhood. Avon, MT.
1998 Devil’s Perch: Prostitution from Suite to Cellar in Butte, Montana. Montana: The Magazine of Western History, 43(3):4-21.
Beaverhead County History Book Association (BCHBA)
1990 The History of Beaverhead County, Volumes I and II. Beaverhead County History Book Association: Dillon, MT.
Bernstein, David E.
1999 Lochner, parity and Chinese laundry. William & Mary Law Review.
1993 China Row: A Report on the Chinese Burial Ground at Forestvale Cemetery. Prepared for the Forestvale Cemetery Board of Lewis and Clark County. On file, Montana Historical Society: Helena, MT.
Blackford, Lindsay and Christopher W. Merritt
2008 Granite Chinatown Artifact Inventory. On File: Montana State Historic Preservation Office, Helena, MT.
Blake, Henry N., and Cornelius Hedges
1877 Reports of Cases Argued and Determined in the Supreme Court of Montana Territory. Volume II. Sumner Whitney & Company: San Francisco, CA.
2004 The Chinese presence in Virginia City, Montana : A historical archaeology perspective. Master’s Thesis, University of Montana, Missoula.
Burlingame, Merrill G.
1942 The Montana Frontier. Montana Historical Society: Helena, MT.
2001 In the Colonies of Tang: Historical archaeology of Chinese Communities in the Northern Cariboo District, British Columbia (1860s-1940s). Doctor of Philosophy Dissertation, Department of Archaeology, Simon Fraser University: Burnaby, British Columbia.
1976 Memories linger, long after Chinatown’s gone. Montana Standard, July 4, page 16.
Davis, Deborah J.
1982 Anti-Chinese Sentiment Found in the Missoula and Cedar Creek Pioneer: Sept. 15, 1870 to Feb. 8, 1873. Senior Seminar Paper, School of Journalism, University of Montana: Missoula, MT.
1987 Gumboot Gamblers: Tales of the Cedar Creek Gold Rush. Mineral County Museum and Historical Society: Superior Montana.
1966 Shallow Diggin’s: Tales from Montana’s Ghost Towns. The Caxton Printers, Ltd: Caldwell, ID.
Davis, Wiley S.
1967 The Chinese in Virginia City, Montana 1863-1898. Unpublished transcription of remarks to the Montana Institute of the Arts History Group. On file at the Montana Historical Society, Helena, and Madison County Historical Society, Virginia City, MT.
Dean, Patty, ed.
2009 No. 30: Chinese Gardens. Drumlummon Views, 3(1):347-352.
Didriksen, Evelyn and Bob Didriksen
1994 Gold Pans and Singletrees. Anderson Publications: Fairfield, MT.
1977 The Vigilantes of Montana. University of Oklahoma Press: Norman, OK.
Dirlick, Arif and Malcolm Yeung
2001 Chinese on the American Frontier. Rowman and Littlefield: Lanham, MD.
Douglas, John E. and Linda J. Brown
2002 Virginia City 2000-2001: Archaeological Assessment, Volume 2: Excavation Results. Department of Anthropology, University of Montana, Missoula. Prepared for: Montana Heritage Commission, Helena, MT.
Draszt, Joan M.
1998 Echo of Crosscuts and Rails. J.M. Draszt: Thompson Falls, MT.
Dunbar, Seymour and Paul C. Phillips
1927 The Journals and Letters of Major John Owen, vols.1 and 2: Pioneer of the Northwest 1850- 1871. Southworth Press: Portland, ME.
Ellis, Meredith, Christopher W. Merritt, Shannon Novak and Kelly J. Dixon
2011 The Signature of Starvation: A Comparison of Bone Wear at a Chinese Encampment in Montana and the Donner Party Camp in California. Manuscript Submitted to Journal of Historical Archaeology, under review.
Federal Census Bureau
1870 9th Federal Census, Montana Territory. Federal Census Bureau, Government Printing Office Washington, D.C.
1880 10th Federal Census, Montana Territory. Federal Census Bureau, Government Printing Office: Washington, D.C.
1892 11th Federal Census Compendium, Part III. Federal Census Bureau, Government Printing Office: Washington, D.C.
1896 Abstract of the 11th Census, 1890. Federal Census Bureau, Government Printing Office: Washington, D.C.
1900 12th Federal Census, Montana. Federal Census Bureau, Government Printing Office: Washington, D.C.
1910 13th Federal Census, Montana. Federal Census Bureau, Government Printing Office: Washington, D.C.
1920 14th Federal Census, Montana. Federal Census Bureau, Government Printing Office: Washington, D.C.
1930 15th Federal Census, Montana. Federal Census Bureau, Government Printing Office: Washington, D.C.
Flaherty, Stacy A.
1987 Boycott in Butte: Organized Labor and the Chinese Community, 1896-1897. Montana: The Magazine of Western History, 37(1):34-47.
2006 Goldpans, Guns & Grit: Diamond City from Territorial Gold Rush to Montana Ghost Town. Hidden Hollow Hideaway Cattle & Guest Ranch: Townsend, MT.
Fort Leavenworth Prisoner Files
1926 Yee Sing, Inmate #23147. National Archives, Kansas City, MO.
1992 The Ophir Creek Historic Mining District: A Contextual Study. Publication No. R1-93-19. United States Forest Service, Helena National Forest: Helena, MT.
Fredlund, Lynn, Dale Decco, Gene Munson, and Jean Hourston-Wright
1991 Archeological Investigations in the German Gulch Historic District (24SB212): A Historic Chinese and Euroamerican Placer Mining Area in Southwestern Montana. Vols. I & II. Report prepared for Beal Mountain Mining, Inc. GCM Services Inc.: Butte, MT.
1961 Chinese Graves. Unpublished research notes, September 6, 1961, MC76. On file: Montana Historical Society Archives: Helena, MT.
Gardner, Albert Dudley
2000 Two Paths One Destiny: A Comparison of Chinese Households and Communities in Alberta, British Columbia, Montana, and Wyoming, 1848-1910. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of New Mexico.
1996 Very Close to Trouble: The Johnny Grant Memoir. Washington State University Press: Pullman, WA.
1998 A Guide to Historic Virginia City. Montana Historical Society Press: Helena, MT.
2007 Remember When? Sanders County Ledger. March 15, pg. 13.
Hahn, Margie E.
1986 In Retrospect: A History of Mineral County. Superior Printing: Superior, MT.
Hall, Daniel S., Susan L. Knudsen, Richard D. Gibbons, John Fielding, and Jennifer H. Ogborne
2006 Marysville Data Recovery, Chinese Laundry Locations, Marysville, Montana, Lewis & Clark County. Report prepared for Montana Department of Transportation. Western Cultural Inc.: Missoula, MT.
Hao Hsing, letter
1893 Letter from Hao Hsing to Ah Hie. Montana Historical Society Manuscript Collection, MC1794, Box 1, Folder 2. Montana Historical Society: Helena, MT.
1984 Horse Plains, Montana Territory. The Printery: Plains, MT.
1942 Chinese Boy Arrives in Montana in Stirring Pioneer Period, Praises Benefactors Opportunities Given by Land of Adoption. Cut Bank Pioneer Press, September 25.
1980 Japanese Immigrant Labor Contractors and the Northern Pacific and the Great Northern Railroad Companies, 1898-1907. Labor History 21(3):325-350.
Jefferson County Courthouse
1871 Deed Book H. Jefferson County Courthouse: Boulder, MT.
Lambert, Kirby, Patricia Burnham, and Susan R. Near
2002 Montana’s State Capitol: The People’s House. Montana Historical Society: Helena, MT.
Lee, Rose Hum
1949 Occupational Invasion, Succession, and Accommodation of the Chinese of Butte, Montana. American Journal of Sociology, 55(1):50-58.
1978 The Growth and Decline of Chinese Communities in the Mountain Region. Arno Press: New York, NY.
Leeson, Michael A.
1885 History of Montana: 1735-1885. Warner, Beers & Company: Chicago, IL.
Lewis and Clark County
1866 Ah Gih. Deed Book B, pg. 189. Lewis and Clark County Courthouse, Helena, MT.
1866 Ah Gown et al., Ah Quay et al., and Ah Rey et al. Deed Book B, pg. 192. Lewis and Clark County Courthouse, Helena, MT.
Lewty, Peter J.
1987 To the Columbia Gateway: The Oregon Railway and Northern Pacific, 1879-1884. Washington State University Press: Pullman, WA.
Lindau, Paul and Frederic Trautmann
1985 Across Montana on the Northern Pacific in 1883. Montana: The Magazine of Western History, 35(2):60-65.
1988 Surviving on the Gold Mountain: A History of Chinese American Women and Their Lives. SUNY Press: Albany, NY.
Madison County History Association (MCHA)
1976 Pioneer Trails and Trials: Madison County 1863-1920, Bicentennial Edition. Blueprint & Letter Co.: Great Falls, MT.
Malone, Michael P.
1989 Beyond the Last Frontier: Toward a New Approach to Western American History. Western Historical Quarterly, 20(4):409-427.
Malone, Michael P. and Richard Etulain
1989 The American West. University of Nebraska Press: Lincoln, NE.
Malone, Michael P., Richard B. Roeder, and William L. Lang
1991 Montana: A History of Two Centuries. University of Washington Press: Seattle, WA.
McCourt, Kathleen A.
2010 VC-21: Green Front Buildings (V094 & V095): A Cultural Resource Survey of Virginia City, Montana (24MA0723). Report prepared for Montana Heritage Preservation and Development Commission: Virginia City, MT.
2010 The Chinese on Montana’s National Forests: Final Report of Historical and Archaeological Investigations 2006-2010. Report to Regional Office, Region 1, United States Forest Service, Missoula, from Department of Anthropology, University of Montana, Missoula.
2009a The Cedar Creek Chinese: Report on Additional Excavations, Summer of 2008. Report to Lolo National Forest, Missoula, from Department of Anthropology, University of Montana, Missoula.
2009b Final Results of Fieldwork: Poacher Gulch Terraces, Summer 2007. Report to Lolo National Forest, Missoula, from Department of Anthropology, University of Montana, Missoula.
2007 The Cedar Creek Chinese: Report on Excavations. Report to Lolo National Forest, Missoula, from Department of Anthropology, University of Montana, Missoula.
2006 Preliminary Results of Fieldwork: Poacher Gulch Terraces, Fall 2006. Report to Lolo National Forest, Missoula, from Department of Anthropology, University of Montana, Missoula.
Merritt, Christopher W., Kassy Marjerrison and Katie Baumler
2008 Summary of “Funs” Trays Found at China Gulch (24MN0262). Asian American Comparative Collection Newsletter, 25(4):2.
Merritt, Christopher W. and Jono L. Mogstad
2009 Final Report on Yogo Town Archaeological Testing. Report to Lewis & Clark National Forest, Great Falls, from University of Montana, Missoula.
Meyer, Garren J.
2001 A Culture History of the German Gulch Chinese. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.
Mineral Survey Notes
1877 Mineral Plat of Placer Mining Company of Joseph D. Conrad, William Angel, Samuel A. Hanley and Alson E. Ingersoll. Mineral Survey #547.
Morris, Patrick F.
1997 Anaconda, Montana: Copper Smelting Boom Town on the Western Frontier. Swann Publishing: Bethesda, MD.
2009 Master’s Project: Big Timber Chinatown Investigations. Professional Portfolio, Department of Anthropology, University of Montana: Missoula, MT.
1987 Helena’s Social Supremacy: Political Sarcasm and the Capital Fight. Montana: The Magazine of Western History, 37(4):68-72.
Nolan, Edward W.
1983 “Not without Labor and Expense”: The Villard-Northern Pacific Last Spike Excursion, 1883. Montana: The Magazine of Western History, 33(3):2-11.
Paige, Ronald B., Dennis C. Darling and Jack B. McCoy
1998 Ghost Town Trails: A Guide to the Historic Ghost Towns of Granite County, Montana. Ronald B. Paige: Philipsburg, MT.
1994 Sons of the Yellow Emperor: A History of the Chinese Diaspora. Kodansha International: New York, NY.
Phillips, Paul C., ed.
1925 Forty Years on the Frontier as Seen in the Journals and Reminisces of Granville Stuart. Arthur H. Clark Co.: Cleveland, OH.
Raymond, Rossiter W.
1869 The Mines of the West: A Report to the Secretary of the Treasury. J.B. Ford & Company: New York, NY.
1870 Statistics of Mines and Mining in the States and Territories West of the Rocky Mountains. Government Printing Office: Washington, D.C.
1873 Silver and Gold: An Account of the Mining and Metallurgical Industry of the United States. J.B. Ford & Company: New York, NY.
Renz, Louis Tuck
1980 The History of the Northern Pacific Railroad. Ye Galleon Press: Fairfield, WA.
2010 The Benton Chinese Persevered and Worked On: The Celestial Kingdom on the Upper Missouri—Part III. Fort Benton River Press, February 24.
2009a "Aliens Alive and Aliens Dead": The Celestial Kingdom on the Upper Missouri Part II. Fort Benton River Press, November 9.
2009b The Celestial Kingdom on the Upper Missouri: The Chinese of Historic Chouteau County -- Part I. Fort Benton River Press, October 21.
2000 Addendum to Site File #24MO110 (Montreal town site or Old Town). Ninemile Fire Burned Area Emergency Rehabilitation (BAER) observations. On file at Lolo National Forest Supervisor’s Office: Missoula, MT.
Rohe, Randall E.
1982 After the Gold Rush: Chinese Mining in the Far West. Montana: The Magazine of Western History, 32(4):2-19.
1996 Chinese River Mining in the West. Montana, The Magazine of Western History, 46(3):14-29.
2008 Final Report of Archaeological Investigations of Butte’s Chinatown. Renewable Technologies, Inc.: Butte, MT.
2003 Cave Gulch Wildfire Lewis & Clark and Broadwater Counties, Montana: Archaeological Testing and Detailed Recordation. Volume I. Renewable Technologies, Inc.: Butte, MT.
2002 Cave Gulch Wildfire Post-Burn Heritage Resources Assessment, Lewis & Clark and Broadwater Counties, Montana. Volume I. Renewable Technologies, Inc.: Butte, MT.
1997 Granite: A Cultural Resource Inventory and Evaluation Report. Renewable Technologies, Inc.: Butte, MT.
2004 Remembering Butte’s Chinatown. Montana Magazine of Western History, 54(2):67-69.
Schwantes, Carlos A.
1982 Protest in a Promised Land: Unemployment, Disinheritance, and the origin of Labor Militancy in the Pacific Northwest, 1885-1886. Western Historical Quarterly, 13(4):373-390.
Smalley, Eugene V.
1883 History of the Northern Pacific Railroad. G.P. Putnam & Sons: New York, NY.
1996 Bozeman and the Gallatin Valley: A History. Twodot Press: Helena, MT.
2006 Montana’s Madison Country: A History. Gooch Hill Publishers: Bozeman, MT.
Spence, Clark C.
1975 Territorial Politics and Government in Montana: 1864-1889. University of Illinois Press: Urbana, IL.
Spence, Jonathan D.
1990 The Search for Modern China. W.W. Norton Company: New York, NY.
State of Montana
1909 Laws, Resolutions and Memorials of the State of Montana Passed at the Eleventh Regular Session of the Legislative Assembly. Independent Publishing Company: Helena, MT.
State of Montana
1953 Laws, Resolutions and Memorials of the State of Montana Passed at the Thirty-Third Legislative Assembly in Regular Session. State Publishing Company: Helena, MT.
2007 Broadwater County Chinese: The Forgotten Immigrant 1865-1925. Unpublished Report. On file at the Montana Historical Society Archives: Helena, MT.
Swartout, Robert R. Jr.
1988 Kwangtung to Big Sky: The Chinese in Montana, 1864-1900. Montana: The Magazine of Western History, 38(1):42-53.
2001 Kwangtung to Big Sky: The Chinese in Montana, 1864-1900. In Chinese on the American Frontier, pp 367-382. Dirlick and Yeung, eds., Rowman and Littlefield: Lanham, MD.
Taylor, Bill and Jan Taylor
1999 The Northern Pacific’s Rails to Gold and Silver: Lines to Montana’s Mining Camps, Volume I: 1883-1887. Pictorial Histories Publishing Co.: Missoula, MT.
2002 Northern Pacific’s Mullan Pass on the ‘Montana Short Line’. Pictorial Histories Publishing Co.: Missoula, MT.
Thompson, Francis M., and Kenneth N. Owens
2004 A Tenderfoot in Montana: Reminiscences of the Gold Rush, the Vigilantes, and the Birth of Montana Territory. Globe Peqout Press: Guilford, CT.
Toole, K. Ross
1959 Montana: An Uncommon Land. University of Oklahoma Press: Norman, OK.
United States Army
1881 Register of Burials at Fort Shaw. Department of the Army.
Weisz, Gary J.
2003 Stepping Light: Revisiting the Construction Camps on the Lake Pend d’Oreille and Clark Fork Division of the Northern Pacific Railroad, 1879-1883, Volume III. Unpublished Manuscript, on file at Idaho State Historic Preservation Office: Boise, ID.
Whitfield, William W.
2007 Montana Ghost Towns and Gold Camps: A Pictorial Guide. Stoneydale Press Publishing Company: Stevensville, MT.
Wolle, Muriel Sibell
1963 Montana Pay Dirt: A Guide to the Mining Camps of the Treasure State. Ohio University Press: Athens, OH.
Works Public Administration (WPA)
n.d. Mining Oral Histories, Superior, MT. On file at the Mineral County Historical Society, Superior, MT.
Wunder, John R.
1980 Law and Chinese in Frontier Montana. Montana: The Magazine of Western History, 30(3):18-31.
United States versus Foo Duck
1909 Decisions Involving International Law, U.S. v. Foo Duck. American Journal of International Law, 3(2):489-491.
Voynick, Stephen M.
1985 Yogo: The Great American Sapphire. Mountain Press Publishing Company: Missoula, MT.
1997 A Chinaman’s Chance: the Chinee on the Rocky Mounting Mining Frontier. University Press of Colorado: Boulder, CO.
1995 ‘A Chinaman’s Chance’ on the Rocky Mountain Mining Frontier. Montana: The Magazine of Western History, 45(4):36-51.