Research Resources

 

In an effort to help other researchers study the Chinese experience in Montana, this section of the website will contain public domain documents for dissemination to interested parties.  These resources may include census abstracts, newspaper extractions, pictures of selected Chinese artifacts, and many other types of documents.  If anyone has additional information, or documents relating to this experience, please send Merritt an email that can be found under “Contact Us”. 

Dissertation

Newspaper Extractions

Census/Population

 

Bibliography of Montana Chinese Resources

Following is a listing of primary and secondary historical documents that provide insight into the Chinese Experience specifically in Montana. None of these resources can be found on this page, but hopefully this guide will help future researchers discover additional information about the Chinese in their communities. You can also download a pdf version of this list by clicking HERE. If you have any other resources that you feel should be included please do not hesitate to contact Chris Merritt at christopher.merritt@umconnect.umt.edu


Ahmad, Diana L.
2007 The Opium Debate and Chinese Exclusion Laws in the Nineteenth-Century American West. University of Nevada Press, Reno and Las Vegas.

Alt, David and Donald W. Hyndman
1986    Roadside Geology of Montana.  Mountain Press Publishing Company: Missoula, MT.

Avon Get Together Club
1977    Our Neighborhood.  Avon, MT.

Baumler, Ellen
1998    Devil’s Perch: Prostitution from Suite to Cellar in Butte, Montana.  Montana: The Magazine of Western History, 43(3):4-21. 

Beaverhead County History Book Association (BCHBA)
1990    The History of Beaverhead County, Volumes I and II.  Beaverhead County History Book Association: Dillon, MT.

Bernstein, David E.
1999    Lochner, parity and Chinese laundry.  William & Mary Law Review

Bik, Patricia
1993    China Row: A Report on the Chinese Burial Ground at Forestvale Cemetery.  Prepared for the Forestvale Cemetery Board of Lewis and Clark County.  On file, Montana Historical Society: Helena, MT.

Blackford, Lindsay and Christopher W. Merritt
2008    Granite Chinatown Artifact Inventory.  On File: Montana State Historic Preservation Office, Helena, MT.

Blake, Henry N., and Cornelius Hedges
1877    Reports of Cases Argued and Determined in the Supreme Court of Montana Territory. Volume II.  Sumner Whitney & Company: San Francisco, CA.

Bowen, Kristin
2004    The Chinese presence in Virginia City, Montana : A historical archaeology perspective.  Master’s Thesis, University of Montana, Missoula.

Burlingame, Merrill G.
1942    The Montana Frontier.  Montana Historical Society: Helena, MT.

Chen, Ying-ying
2001    In the Colonies of Tang: Historical archaeology of Chinese Communities in the Northern Cariboo District, British Columbia (1860s-1940s).  Doctor of Philosophy Dissertation, Department of Archaeology, Simon Fraser University: Burnaby, British Columbia.

Ciabattari, Andrea
1976    Memories linger, long after Chinatown’s gone.  Montana Standard, July 4, page 16.

Davis, Deborah J.
1982    Anti-Chinese Sentiment Found in the Missoula and Cedar Creek Pioneer: Sept. 15, 1870 to Feb. 8, 1873.  Senior Seminar Paper, School of Journalism, University of Montana: Missoula, MT.

1987    Gumboot Gamblers: Tales of the Cedar Creek Gold Rush.  Mineral County Museum and Historical Society: Superior Montana.

Davis, Jean
1966    Shallow Diggin’s: Tales from Montana’s Ghost Towns.  The Caxton Printers, Ltd: Caldwell, ID.

Davis, Wiley S.
1967    The Chinese in Virginia City, Montana 1863-1898.  Unpublished transcription of remarks to the Montana Institute of the Arts History Group.  On file at the Montana Historical Society, Helena, and Madison County Historical Society, Virginia City, MT.

Dean, Patty, ed.
2009    No. 30: Chinese Gardens.  Drumlummon Views, 3(1):347-352. 

Didriksen, Evelyn and Bob Didriksen
1994    Gold Pans and Singletrees.  Anderson Publications: Fairfield, MT.

Dimsdale, Thomas
1977    The Vigilantes of Montana.  University of Oklahoma Press: Norman, OK.

Dirlick, Arif and Malcolm Yeung
2001    Chinese on the American Frontier.  Rowman and Littlefield: Lanham, MD.

Douglas, John E. and Linda J. Brown
2002    Virginia City 2000-2001: Archaeological Assessment, Volume 2: Excavation Results.  Department of Anthropology, University of Montana, Missoula.  Prepared for: Montana Heritage Commission, Helena, MT. 

Draszt, Joan M.
1998    Echo of Crosscuts and Rails.  J.M. Draszt: Thompson Falls, MT.

Dunbar, Seymour and Paul C. Phillips
1927   The Journals and Letters of Major John Owen, vols.1 and 2: Pioneer of the Northwest 1850- 1871.  Southworth Press: Portland, ME.

Ellis, Meredith, Christopher W. Merritt, Shannon Novak and Kelly J. Dixon
2011    The Signature of Starvation: A Comparison of Bone Wear at a Chinese Encampment in Montana and the Donner Party Camp in California.  Manuscript Submitted to Journal of Historical Archaeology, under review.

Federal Census Bureau
1870    9th Federal Census, Montana Territory.  Federal Census Bureau, Government Printing Office Washington, D.C.

1880    10th Federal Census, Montana Territory.  Federal Census Bureau, Government Printing Office: Washington, D.C.

1892    11th Federal Census Compendium, Part III.  Federal Census Bureau, Government Printing Office: Washington, D.C.

1896    Abstract of the 11th Census, 1890.  Federal Census Bureau, Government Printing Office: Washington, D.C.

1900    12th Federal Census, Montana.  Federal Census Bureau, Government Printing Office: Washington, D.C.

1910    13th Federal Census, Montana.  Federal Census Bureau, Government Printing Office: Washington, D.C.

1920    14th Federal Census, Montana.  Federal Census Bureau, Government Printing Office: Washington, D.C.

1930    15th Federal Census, Montana.  Federal Census Bureau, Government Printing Office: Washington, D.C.

Flaherty, Stacy A.
1987    Boycott in Butte: Organized Labor and the Chinese Community, 1896-1897.  Montana: The Magazine of Western History, 37(1):34-47. 

Flynn, Kelly
2006    Goldpans, Guns & Grit: Diamond City from Territorial Gold Rush to Montana Ghost Town.  Hidden Hollow Hideaway Cattle & Guest Ranch: Townsend, MT.

Fort Leavenworth Prisoner Files
1926       Yee Sing, Inmate #23147.  National Archives, Kansas City, MO.

Foster, Lance
1992    The Ophir Creek Historic Mining District: A Contextual Study.  Publication No. R1-93-19.  United States Forest Service,  Helena National Forest: Helena, MT. 

Fredlund, Lynn, Dale Decco, Gene Munson, and Jean Hourston-Wright
1991    Archeological Investigations in the German Gulch Historic District (24SB212): A Historic Chinese and Euroamerican Placer Mining Area in Southwestern Montana. Vols. I & II.  Report prepared for Beal Mountain Mining, Inc. GCM Services Inc.: Butte, MT.

Fullerton, Neil  
1961    Chinese Graves.  Unpublished research notes, September 6, 1961,  MC76. On file: Montana Historical Society Archives: Helena, MT.

Gardner, Albert Dudley
2000    Two Paths One Destiny:  A Comparison of Chinese Households and Communities in Alberta, British Columbia, Montana, and Wyoming, 1848-1910.  Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, University of New Mexico.

Grant, Johnny
1996    Very Close to Trouble: The Johnny Grant Memoir.  Washington State University Press: Pullman, WA.

Grant, Marilyn
1998    A Guide to Historic Virginia City.  Montana Historical Society Press: Helena, MT.

Hagerman-Benton, Sherry
2007    Remember When?  Sanders County Ledger.  March 15, pg. 13.

Hahn, Margie E.
1986    In Retrospect: A History of Mineral County.  Superior Printing: Superior, MT.

Hall, Daniel S., Susan L. Knudsen, Richard D. Gibbons, John Fielding, and Jennifer H. Ogborne
2006    Marysville Data Recovery, Chinese Laundry Locations, Marysville, Montana, Lewis & Clark County. Report prepared for Montana Department of Transportation. Western Cultural Inc.: Missoula, MT.

Hao Hsing, letter
1893    Letter from Hao Hsing to Ah Hie.  Montana Historical Society Manuscript Collection, MC1794, Box 1, Folder 2.  Montana Historical Society: Helena, MT.

Helterline, Maurice
1984    Horse Plains, Montana Territory.  The Printery: Plains, MT.

Hilden, Vivian
1942    Chinese Boy Arrives in Montana in Stirring Pioneer Period, Praises Benefactors Opportunities Given by Land of Adoption.  Cut Bank Pioneer Press, September 25. 

Ichioka, Yuji
1980    Japanese Immigrant Labor Contractors and the Northern Pacific and the Great Northern Railroad Companies, 1898-1907.  Labor History 21(3):325-350.

Jefferson County Courthouse
1871    Deed Book H.  Jefferson County Courthouse: Boulder, MT.

Lambert, Kirby, Patricia Burnham, and Susan R. Near
2002    Montana’s State Capitol: The People’s House.  Montana Historical Society: Helena, MT.

Lee, Rose Hum
1949    Occupational Invasion, Succession, and Accommodation of the Chinese of Butte, Montana.  American Journal of Sociology, 55(1):50-58.

1978    The Growth and Decline of Chinese Communities in the Mountain Region.  Arno Press: New York, NY.

Leeson, Michael A.
1885    History of Montana: 1735-1885.  Warner, Beers & Company: Chicago, IL.

Lewis and Clark County
1866    Ah Gih.  Deed Book B, pg. 189.  Lewis and Clark County Courthouse, Helena, MT.

1866    Ah Gown et al., Ah Quay et al., and Ah Rey et al.  Deed Book B, pg. 192. Lewis and Clark County Courthouse, Helena, MT. 

Lewty, Peter J.
1987    To the Columbia Gateway: The Oregon Railway and Northern Pacific, 1879-1884.  Washington State University Press: Pullman, WA.

Lindau, Paul and Frederic Trautmann
1985    Across Montana on the Northern Pacific in 1883.  Montana: The Magazine of Western History, 35(2):60-65. 

Ling, Huping
1988    Surviving on the Gold Mountain: A History of Chinese American Women and Their Lives.  SUNY Press: Albany, NY.

Madison County History Association (MCHA)
1976    Pioneer Trails and Trials: Madison County 1863-1920, Bicentennial Edition.  Blueprint & Letter Co.: Great Falls, MT.

Malone, Michael P.
1989    Beyond the Last Frontier: Toward a New Approach to Western American History.  Western Historical Quarterly, 20(4):409-427.

Malone, Michael P. and Richard Etulain
1989    The American West.  University of Nebraska Press: Lincoln, NE.

Malone, Michael P., Richard B. Roeder, and William L. Lang
1991    Montana: A History of Two Centuries.  University of Washington Press: Seattle, WA.

McCourt, Kathleen A.
2010    VC-21: Green Front Buildings (V094 & V095): A Cultural Resource Survey of Virginia City, Montana (24MA0723).  Report prepared for Montana Heritage Preservation and Development Commission: Virginia City, MT.  

Merritt, Chris
2010    The Chinese on Montana’s National Forests: Final Report of Historical and Archaeological Investigations 2006-2010.  Report to Regional Office, Region 1, United States Forest Service, Missoula, from Department of Anthropology, University of Montana, Missoula.

2009a  The Cedar Creek Chinese: Report on Additional Excavations, Summer of 2008.  Report to Lolo National Forest, Missoula, from Department of Anthropology, University of Montana, Missoula.

2009b  Final Results of Fieldwork: Poacher Gulch Terraces, Summer 2007.  Report to Lolo National Forest, Missoula, from Department of Anthropology, University of Montana, Missoula.

2007    The Cedar Creek Chinese: Report on Excavations.  Report to Lolo National Forest, Missoula, from Department of Anthropology, University of Montana, Missoula.

2006    Preliminary Results of Fieldwork: Poacher Gulch Terraces, Fall 2006.  Report to Lolo National Forest, Missoula, from Department of Anthropology, University of Montana, Missoula.

Merritt, Christopher W., Kassy Marjerrison and Katie Baumler
2008    Summary of “Funs” Trays Found at China Gulch (24MN0262).  Asian American Comparative Collection Newsletter, 25(4):2. 

Merritt, Christopher W. and Jono L. Mogstad
2009    Final Report on Yogo Town Archaeological Testing.  Report to Lewis & Clark National Forest, Great Falls, from University of Montana, Missoula.

Meyer, Garren J.
2001    A Culture History of the German Gulch Chinese. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

Mineral Survey Notes
1877    Mineral Plat of Placer Mining Company of Joseph D. Conrad, William Angel, Samuel A. Hanley and Alson E. Ingersoll.  Mineral Survey #547. 

Morris, Patrick F.
1997    Anaconda, Montana: Copper Smelting Boom Town on the Western Frontier. Swann Publishing: Bethesda, MD.

Moschelle, Justin
2009    Master’s Project: Big Timber Chinatown Investigations.  Professional Portfolio, Department of Anthropology, University of Montana: Missoula, MT.

Newby, Rick
1987    Helena’s Social Supremacy: Political Sarcasm and the Capital Fight.  Montana: The Magazine of Western History, 37(4):68-72. 

Nolan, Edward W.
1983    “Not without Labor and Expense”:  The Villard-Northern Pacific Last Spike Excursion, 1883.  Montana: The Magazine of Western History, 33(3):2-11. 

Paige, Ronald B., Dennis C. Darling and Jack B. McCoy
1998    Ghost Town Trails: A Guide to the Historic Ghost Towns of Granite County, Montana. Ronald B. Paige: Philipsburg, MT.

Pan, Lynn
1994    Sons of the Yellow Emperor: A History of the Chinese Diaspora.  Kodansha International: New York, NY.

Phillips, Paul C., ed.
1925    Forty Years on the Frontier as Seen in the Journals and Reminisces of Granville Stuart.  Arthur H. Clark Co.: Cleveland, OH.

Raymond, Rossiter W.
1869    The Mines of the West: A Report to the Secretary of the Treasury.  J.B. Ford & Company: New York, NY.

1870    Statistics of Mines and Mining in the States and Territories West of the Rocky Mountains.  Government Printing Office: Washington, D.C.

1873    Silver and Gold: An Account of the Mining and Metallurgical Industry of the United States. J.B. Ford & Company: New York, NY.

Renz, Louis Tuck
1980    The History of the Northern Pacific Railroad.  Ye Galleon Press: Fairfield, WA.

Robison, Ken
2010    The Benton Chinese Persevered and Worked On: The Celestial Kingdom on the Upper Missouri—Part IIIFort Benton River Press, February 24. 

2009a  "Aliens Alive and Aliens Dead": The Celestial Kingdom on the Upper Missouri Part IIFort Benton River Press, November 9.

2009b  The Celestial Kingdom on the Upper Missouri: The Chinese of Historic Chouteau County -- Part IFort Benton River Press, October 21. 

Roenke, Karl
2000    Addendum to Site File #24MO110 (Montreal town site or Old Town).  Ninemile Fire Burned Area Emergency Rehabilitation (BAER) observations.  On file at Lolo National Forest Supervisor’s Office: Missoula, MT.

Rohe, Randall E.
1982    After the Gold Rush: Chinese Mining in the Far West.  Montana: The Magazine of Western History, 32(4):2-19.

1996    Chinese River Mining in the West.  Montana, The Magazine of Western History, 46(3):14-29.          

Rossillon, Mitzi
2008    Final Report of Archaeological Investigations of Butte’s Chinatown.  Renewable Technologies, Inc.: Butte, MT.

2003    Cave Gulch Wildfire Lewis & Clark and Broadwater Counties, Montana: Archaeological Testing and Detailed Recordation.  Volume I.  Renewable Technologies, Inc.: Butte, MT.

2002    Cave Gulch Wildfire Post-Burn Heritage Resources Assessment, Lewis & Clark and Broadwater Counties, Montana.  Volume I.  Renewable Technologies, Inc.:  Butte, MT.

1997    Granite: A Cultural Resource Inventory and Evaluation Report.  Renewable Technologies, Inc.: Butte, MT.

Schnieder, Carrie
2004    Remembering Butte’s Chinatown.  Montana Magazine of Western History, 54(2):67-69.

Schwantes, Carlos A.
1982    Protest in a Promised Land: Unemployment, Disinheritance, and the origin of Labor Militancy in the Pacific Northwest, 1885-1886.  Western Historical Quarterly, 13(4):373-390. 

Smalley, Eugene V.
1883    History of the Northern Pacific Railroad.  G.P. Putnam & Sons: New York, NY.

Smith, Phyllis
1996    Bozeman and the Gallatin Valley: A History.  Twodot Press: Helena, MT.

2006    Montana’s Madison Country: A History.  Gooch Hill Publishers: Bozeman, MT.

Spence, Clark C.
1975    Territorial Politics and Government in Montana: 1864-1889.  University of Illinois Press: Urbana, IL.

Spence, Jonathan D.
1990    The Search for Modern China.  W.W. Norton Company: New York, NY.

State of Montana
1909    Laws, Resolutions and Memorials of the State of Montana Passed at the Eleventh Regular Session of the Legislative Assembly.  Independent Publishing Company: Helena, MT.

State of Montana
1953    Laws, Resolutions and Memorials of the State of Montana Passed at the Thirty-Third Legislative Assembly in Regular Session.  State Publishing Company: Helena, MT.

Stoner, John
2007    Broadwater County Chinese: The Forgotten Immigrant 1865-1925.  Unpublished Report.  On file at the Montana Historical Society Archives: Helena, MT.

Swartout, Robert R. Jr.
1988    Kwangtung to Big Sky: The Chinese in Montana, 1864-1900.  Montana: The Magazine of Western History, 38(1):42-53. 

2001    Kwangtung to Big Sky: The Chinese in Montana, 1864-1900.  In Chinese on the American Frontier, pp 367-382.  Dirlick and Yeung, eds., Rowman and Littlefield: Lanham, MD.

Taylor, Bill and Jan Taylor
1999    The Northern Pacific’s Rails to Gold and Silver: Lines to Montana’s Mining Camps, Volume I: 1883-1887.  Pictorial Histories Publishing Co.: Missoula, MT.

2002    Northern Pacific’s Mullan Pass on the ‘Montana Short Line’.  Pictorial Histories Publishing Co.: Missoula, MT.

Thompson, Francis M., and Kenneth N. Owens
2004    A Tenderfoot in Montana: Reminiscences of the Gold Rush, the Vigilantes, and the Birth of Montana Territory.  Globe Peqout Press: Guilford, CT.

Toole, K. Ross
1959    Montana: An Uncommon Land.  University of Oklahoma Press: Norman, OK.

United States Army
1881    Register of Burials at Fort Shaw.  Department of the Army.

Weisz, Gary J.
2003    Stepping Light: Revisiting the Construction Camps on the Lake Pend d’Oreille and Clark Fork Division of the Northern Pacific Railroad, 1879-1883, Volume III.  Unpublished Manuscript, on file at Idaho State Historic Preservation Office: Boise, ID.

Whitfield, William W.
2007    Montana Ghost Towns and Gold Camps: A Pictorial Guide.  Stoneydale Press Publishing Company: Stevensville, MT.

Wolle, Muriel Sibell
1963    Montana Pay Dirt: A Guide to the Mining Camps of the Treasure State.  Ohio University Press: Athens, OH.

Works Public Administration (WPA)
n.d.      Mining Oral Histories, Superior, MT.  On file at the Mineral County Historical Society, Superior, MT.

Wunder, John R.
1980    Law and Chinese in Frontier Montana.  Montana: The Magazine of Western History, 30(3):18-31. 

United States versus Foo Duck
1909    Decisions Involving International Law, U.S. v. Foo Duck.  American Journal of International Law, 3(2):489-491. 

Voynick, Stephen M.
1985    Yogo: The Great American Sapphire.  Mountain Press Publishing Company: Missoula, MT.

Zhu, Liping
1997    A Chinaman’s Chance: the Chinee on the Rocky Mounting Mining Frontier.  University Press of Colorado: Boulder, CO.

1995    ‘A Chinaman’s Chance’ on the Rocky Mountain Mining Frontier.  Montana: The Magazine of Western History, 45(4):36-51.