The University of Montana

Department of Mathematical Sciences

Technical report #1/2013

Argumentation in Mathematics Education

**Kristin Umland**

Dept of Mathematics

University of New Mexico

**Bharath Sriraman**

Dept. of Mathematical Sciences

The University of Montana

**Abstract**

In this article argumentation in mathematics education is defined as the mathematical arguments that students and teachers produce in mathematics classrooms. The characteristics of argumentation are described by examining the canonical literature, particularly the works of Harold Fawcett, George Polya and Imre Lakatos.

**Keywords:** argumentation; deductive reasoning; heuristic reasoning

**AMS Subject Classification:** 97

Excerpt of article to appear in S. Lerman (Ed), *The Encyclopedia of Mathematics Education*, Springer Reference Works. Full article unavailable due to publisher embargo. Pdf (161 KB)