The University of Montana
Department of Mathematical Sciences

Technical report #1/2013

Argumentation in Mathematics Education

Kristin Umland
Dept of Mathematics
University of New Mexico

Bharath Sriraman
Dept. of Mathematical Sciences
The University of Montana


In this article argumentation in mathematics education is defined as the mathematical arguments that students and teachers produce in mathematics classrooms. The characteristics of argumentation are described by examining the canonical literature, particularly the works of Harold Fawcett, George Polya and Imre Lakatos.

Keywords: argumentation; deductive reasoning; heuristic reasoning

AMS Subject Classification: 97

Excerpt of article to appear in S. Lerman (Ed), The Encyclopedia of Mathematics Education, Springer Reference Works. Full article unavailable due to publisher embargo. Pdf (161 KB)